Lincoln is a city in the East Midlands part of England. It has a population of 94,600. Prominent architecture includes a Norman 11th Century castle. A prominent cathedral, an old quarter, the river Witham cuts through the city. A deep water pool used as a boat marina lies close to the city centre. The architecture has been influenced by the Norman, the Romans, and the Civil War 1642 to 1651. The Georgian Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Once one of the wealthiest towns in England. The great Cathedral was commenced in the year 1088, some of the stone being extracted from the vaults beneath it.
An Oolitic limestone quarry was opened just 1.4 miles from the construction site. The stone labelled Silverbed. This quarry has supplied masonry for the repairs of the cathedral for almost a thousand years, but is now virtually exhausted with just a few years of reserves remaining. Small amounts of Ancaster stone have been used for repair purposes. The Castle was built using local rubble stone, and the finest stone from Ancaster, Heydour and Dembleby for more formal features. Ancaster stone has been used to repair and extend the buildings enclosed within it’s walls and was recently used to repair the arch at the East Gate.
The Bishops Palace was commenced in 1175, built for Bishop Chesney most likely from local stone with formal details from Ancaster, Heyour and Dembleby. A small amount of Purbeck Marble has been detected in some of Lincoln’s older buildings; also Permian magnesium limestone from Tadcaster. Occasional exotic rocks can be observed imported to the region by ice movement during the ice age. Sand and gravel for use in Lime concrete came from West of Lincoln where the old gravel beds tap into the ancient course of the River Trent.
Lime for use in Lime concrete and builder’s mortar would have been produced locally but were certainly produced at Ancaster. Originally the road surfacing and paving would have been provided by washed boulders from the ancient course of the River Trent, which passes close to the west of Lincoln. These cobbles would later be replaced by granite sets from Yorkshire and flagstones from the same county, in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
Roofing materials in Lincoln certainly included thatch and turf. There is reference to the sale of these along the waterside in 1566. Early stone roof coverings came from the Collyweston area in East Northamptonshire and about 3 miles to the South West of Stamford in Lincolnshire. The Limestone has naturally formed banding which splits over winter months during the freeze thaw cycles, producing a rived flat lying stone. Collyweston stone will last for several hundred years. However the metal fixing or wooden pegs seldom used to hold them in position, last for much over 150 years after which many original roofs were replaced.
Swithland slate was the closest source of roofing slates situated in the Charnwood region of Leicestershire. Navigable along the River Soar, the River Trent and finally along the Fossdyke (constructed by the Romans) and leading to the heart of Lincoln. Production of Swithland slates eventually stopped in 1887 due to fierce competition from North Wales now navigable by canal and railway. An abundance of clay deposits lie in North Lincolnshire. Barton upon Humber was once known as the brick and tile capitol of Britain, the industry can be traced back to the 17th Century; roofing tiles would have certainly been used across Lincoln.
Over recent years Goldholme Stone have supplied the following projects in the city of Lincoln;